Over the past 10 years, PENOX GmbH has successfully worked together with the battery industry to improve the performance of automotive batteries and to reduce and optimize the formation process for industrial batteries. In recent years, there have been significant changes in the specifications to meet the new requirements coming from applications such as start–stop and braking energy recuperation that effect charge-acceptance and also the state-of-charge of the battery. This has led to the introduction of test procedures, such as the 17.5% DoD test, by car manufacturers that are providing new challenges to the battery industry. In 2013 and 2014, PENOX conducted a test programme with some European battery producers to develop batteries that would meet the new requirements. Positive plates were produced using TBLS+, a PENOX tetra-basic lead sulfate seeding material, and tested in combination with PENOX expander mixes for the negative plates. Initial results proved that TBLS+ was beneficial for the positive plate in terms of lifetime and deep-discharge performance and is supporting the 17.5% DoD test. In combination with the expander mix types PE110 / PE210, it is possible to improve charge-acceptance at high currents. This is a clear step towards meeting the requirements of modern car designs and contributes to lower carbon dioxide emission levels. The presentation will present results from both a European battery producer and the test work undertaken by the battery additive team at PENOX that demonstrate improvements in performance when using TBLS+ and PENOX expanders.


Ian Klein
PENOX GmbH
Head of Battery Additive Team

Biography: Ian Klein has been Laboratory and Quality Manager for PENOX GmbH for more than 20 years. He started his professional career as a researcher more than 38 years ago in the pigment industry. Later he worked in Research & Development and as a Laboratory Manager for a German zinc and zinc oxide producer before entering into the lead oxide industry. At PENOX GmbH in Germany he developed seeding materials for lead acid batteries and is responsible for the technical support of their customers. Three years ago he was the project leader for the installation of a modern expander mix production plant and since 2013 has become head of the battery additive team at PENOX. Ian has a Master of Environmental Science degree from the University of Hagen in Germany.


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