The global demand for lead–acid batteries is growing, with an increasingly varied range of technologically diverse energy-storage applications. In general, there is an ever-increasing requirement for better battery performance. Consequently, the focus is now on the production of lighter, lower cost (less lead), more durable (longer service- life) batteries that are manufactured from optimum-quality raw materials under consistent, reproducible and controlled conditions; with sophisticated, efficient, production equipment and reliable process technology. In order to ensure a sustainable future for lead–acid batteries, it is essential to optimise grid and plate production by minimising waste materials; improving productivity and quality; and increasing lead utilisation. There is a continual push to modify and/or change lead and lead-alloy specifications to invoke lower impurity levels for all elements, often without appreciating their benefits. Nevertheless, it is naive to believe that all elements are detrimental to performance and life of the battery. This presentation reviews the importance of (i) correctly specifying ‘soft’ lead for the production of ‘leady oxide’; (II) selecting the appropriate manufacturing process used to make these oxides; and (iii) utilising the corresponding characteristics and benefits of each of these different oxides in paste for lead–acid cells/batteries.
WIRTZ Manufacturing Company Inc.
Vice President – Battery Technology
Biography: Douglas (‘Doug’) Lambert holds a BSc (Hons) degree from the University of Portsmouth. He joined Oldham Batteries in February 1977 and now with over 38 years of experience in the lead–acid battery industry, which included 12 years as a specialist lead-acid product and process consultant, he is currently Vice President – Battery Technology for the WIRTZ Manufacturing Company Inc.