Heading towards the Market? The ALABC’s Work with OEMs on Low-Cost, Low-Voltage, Micro/Mild Hybridisation
The purpose of the ALABC work is to demonstrate the feasibility of introducing a novel, low-cost, form of hybridization into future vehicles. The concept of increasing the performance of a smaller size engine to that of one with larger capacity involves the addition of relatively simple, bolt-on components to the engine. Also, it does not require the use of expensive, high-voltage, nickel‒metal-hydride (Ni‒MH) or lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries of the type that are generally used in current commercial hybrid vehicles. Reduction in CO2 emissions of almost 20% has been achieved with a 12-V, 1.4-litre demonstration VW Passat compared with the standard 1.8-litre vehicle and, moreover, without loss in performance. The add-on cost of this type of hybridization can be equated to around €60 per percent of CO2 saved as against the €200 normally experienced in a conventional hybrid. Improved performance is expected at 48-V because of the ability to capture a larger amount of regenerative energy, which can then be used both to provide direct torque-assist to the crankshaft and to service other major power-consumers in the car such as oil and water pumps. The carbon-enhanced lead‒acid batteries have exhibited acceptable dynamic charge-acceptance in vehicle use and, importantly, retain better low (and high) temperature performance over Li-ion alternatives. Electronic control at the cell level is not required and thermal management is also simplified in comparison with Li-ion requirements. Furthermore, the carbon-enhanced versions retain the traditional ability of lead‒acid to be recycled readily into new batteries ― a key advantage over both Ni‒MH and Li-ion chemistries. Thus, as well as cost, there are other good reasons for using carbon-enhanced lead‒batteries in micro-/mild-hybrid vehicles that are being planned to meet the increasingly tough legislation for the regulation of vehicle emissions.
European Projects Coordinator
Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium
Allan Cooper is European Project Coordinator for the ALABC. He graduated from the University of Cambridge in 1961. He retired from the lead industry in 1991 and became an independent consultant. In this capacity he has worked closely with the ALABC and with the International Lead Association in the UK.
In 2008 he received the International Lead Award in recognition of his exceptional service to the lead industry, lead metallurgy, production technology and battery development, notably in the field of electric and hybrid electric vehicles and in 2014 celebrated his 50 years in the industry.
Rising to the Challenge — Shaping a Sustainable Future for the Global Lead Industry
2015 is a critical year for the lead industry as it faces up to a number of significant opportunities and threats. The response requires strong partnerships throughout the value chain for lead. Accordingly, the International Lead Association (ILA) is striving to unite the entire lead industry under a single, clear and focused global programme of action. This also includes closer integration with the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) which carries out vital pre-competitive research. Lead batteries today are essential, sustainable and innovative. A strong research and development programme will enable these batteries to meet their full potential and thereby maintain — even enhance — their position as the product of choice in an expanding range of automotive and stationary applications. Technical developments alone will not, however, be sufficient to secure the industry’s well-being. Too few people fully appreciate the extent to which society benefits from lead batteries and even fewer recognize their potential. Indeed an increasing body actively promote the view that there is no future need for lead and lead batteries. The industry must therefore invest in communicating a compelling account of the many benefits they bring to society. This presentation will explore the opportunities and threats facing the industry and report on the efforts of ILA and ALABC to mount a world-wide response.
International Lead Association
Dr Andy Bush joined the Lead Development Association International as a Technical Officer in 1997 before becoming LDAI's Manager for Science and later Director of the International Lead Association Europe. Andy was appointed to the role of Managing Director of the International Lead Association in 2011. On the regulatory side he has co-ordinated the lead industry’s activities on REACH and a number of other EU programmes. He has held the Chairmanship of several Eurométaux groups as well as the chairmanship of an International Council on Mining and Metals technical group providing global coordination on legislation affecting the wider metals industry. He also managed the voluntary risk assessment on lead (2001–2007).
Plate Carbonation in Valve-Regulated Lead‒Acid Batteries — Problems and Solutions
The well-known phenomenon of pasted-plate carbonation during the manufacture of flooded lead‒acid batteries is an issue that has not been fully investigated for the production of plates used in valve-regulated counterparts (VRLAs). The fixing of atmospheric carbon dioxide to PbO on freshly-pasted plates has implications that must be identified and managed. If plate carbonation is not curtailed early in plate manufacture, it results in adverse consequences not only in downstream processing but also in subsequent battery performance. This presentation discloses how the phenomenon was identified about 35 years ago when Gates spiral-wound cells were being produced under conditions that were conducive to plate carbonation. Accordingly, it became necessary to identify clearly the magnitude of plate carbonation and to develop procedures to restrict its occurrence. Information and data are presented on the ambient conditions that lead to plate carbonation, how it was detected, and the changes in manufacturing that are necessary to minimize the degree of formation. A discussion of the consequences of not dealing with plate carbonation with regard to the cost of manufacturing and the impact on battery performance are also given.
Dr. Nelson obtained his B.A. at Northwestern University in 1963 and his Ph.D. from the University of Kansas in 1966 in the field of organic electrochemistry. He worked in the field of teaching and research at the university level, graduated 9 Ph.D. and MS students and published 38 refereed literature papers. He also gave various presentations at national and international conferences. In 1978, he jointed Gates Energy Products and worked with the fledgling company for 13 years in the U.S. and the U.K., as GEP developed their patented valve-regulated lead-acid technology. Following a year working with Portable Energy Products on its flat-plate VRLA product development, he joined the International Lead-Zinc Research Organization, ILZRO, for the next 3 years and was instrumental in establishing the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium, ALABC. After leaving ILZRO in 1994, he worked with Bolder Technologies before going into independent consulting in 1997. Since then, he has worked with a variety of start-up companies, including Firefly, Effpower in Sweden, Axion Power and established companies such as EnerSys in the U.S. and Banner in Austria. He is currently working with battery companies in Korea and China, in addition to several startup companies in the U.S.
Carbon as a Partner of Lead and Sulfuric Acid – Mission Accomplished or Back to School?
Studies by the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) after 2001 showed that adding carbon to the negative plate (either as a separate component or a powder) helped to overcome rapid sulfation of lead–acid batteries when cycled at high rate partial state of charge, a duty that is encountered in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Carbon suppresses the selective formation and growth of lead sulfate crystals in the negative plate. Laboratory and road testing have demonstrated that carbon-enhanced batteries (lead–carbon, LC) offer the specific energy, specific power, charge-acceptance and cycle-life that are required for reliable operation in start–stop, micro- and mild- HEVs. Accordingly, LC batteries and can be used instead of nickel metal-hydride or lithium-ion chemistries. The first LC battery, the UltraBattery®, was conceived by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and is now manufactured by both Furukawa and East Penn. It is a combined battery and supercapacitor in which a carbon plate of high surface-area operates in tandem with the negative plate. At present, most battery companies include a carbon additive in the negative plates of batteries designed for service in start–stop vehicles. In other innovative designs, carbon nanotubes or graphene additives have been employed, or carbon replaces part of the grid or the entire plate. Carbon is not, however, always effective. For instance, if not properly selected and treated, carbon additives can trigger water loss, interaction with the expander and other additives, and reduction in capacity or cold-cranking power. Optimization of expanders, additives, grid and cell design is also essential for reaching a combined target of 1500 W kg-1, 60 Wh kg-1 and thousands of cycles at low cost. Advanced battery monitoring systems and optimized charge strategies are other important considerations.
Program Manager, Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium
Boris Monahov is Program Manager of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). The ALABC is a program of the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) and is managed by the International Lead Association (ILA) in London. Boris is responsible for planning and managing the Research & Development program for advanced lead-acid (lead-carbon) batteries, as well as for organizing battery demonstrations in applications like hybrid electric vehicles and energy storage systems.
Boris holds a Master’s Degree in Physics from the University of Sofia, and a PhD degree in Electrochemistry from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
He has published over 60 articles and three patents. In 2014 he was awarded the Gaston Plante Medal of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences for fundamental contributions to lead-acid battery science and technology.
In-house Recovery Technology for Retaining Value from Lead Dross and By-products
Pyrotek is a leading global company that specializes in the non-ferrous metals sector. The company partners with manufacturers to improve output and profitability. A lead recovery system ― Metaullics Lead Recovery (MLR) ― is offered for use in lead–acid battery plants. The MLR furnace enables recovery of the metallic content of dross or skimmings. Typical recovery rates from skimmings are between 60 and 80%. This metal has significant value. For battery plants that use antimonial alloys, the antimony remains in the recovered lead and thereby delivers added value. More specifically, the MLR system offers simple, user-friendly furnaces that separate the metallics for reuse. In addition, the residue lead oxide powder has commercial value to smelters for feed material. It has been usual practice to offer two sizes of furnace capacity, namely, a 750 kg (1650 lb) and a 1500 kg (3300 lb) batch unit. Due to the increased demand for MLR systems, however, Pyrotek has introduced an additional unit that can process 2000 kg (4400 lb) batches. Following requests from customers, Pyrotek has also designed an ingot system that allows the recovered lead to be cast into ingots of the size required for return of the metal to plant processes.
Business Manager – MLR Metal Recovery Systems
Brendt Halliday is Business Manager for Pyrotek Australia. Brendt has worked in the molten metal industry for 25 years. He is responsible for product solutions into the molten metal industry and other high temperature industries. Brendt is a tradesman in the foundry engineering field, and holds a Master’s degree in Management from Monash University. Brendt’s key focus is on assisting manufacturers to reduce waste stream materials and increase direct bottom line profits, utilising metal recovery systems, molten metal pumps and associated equipment.
What are the Challenges and Opportunities for a Sustainable Lead‒Acid Battery Industry?
The Lead‒Acid Battery Industry prides itself on that fact that lead is the most recyclable commodity with a rate that is well above all the other metals, paper, plastic, and glass. The rate is normally quoted above 95% and indeed 99% was reported in a recent study commissioned in the European Union. Achieving high recycling rates does not, however, necessarily mean that the Lead‒Acid Battery Industry is sustainable. The Industry continues to grow and develop new products and markets, particularly in Asia, but what is its current status with regard to sustainable development and what does the future hold? Are there environmental, social and health challenges ahead that need to be addressed to reach true sustainability? If this goal is reached in the near future, will the Lead‒Acid Battery Industry have opportunities, both social and commercial, to contribute towards society’s aims of a ‘greener’ and cleaner’ planet through innovative product developments?
International Lead Management Center
Brian Wilson is the Program Manager of the ILA’s outreach activities, an essential component of the ILA’s Lead Risk Reduction program and Action 21. After a career in the oil and metals industries, Brian has worked with the Basel Convention Regional Centres in Central and South America, the Caribbean, Asia and Africa on the implementation of Regional and National Projects for the Environmentally Sound Recovery of Used Lead‒Acid Batteries. Most recently, he has been collaborating with the Blacksmith Institute in projects that promote sound recycling procedures in China, India, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Indonesia.
Five -Year Vision of Battery Technology
Today, the development of road vehicle engines is increasingly challenged by the requirement to meet future stringent emission legislation while satisfying the end-user's demand for improved operating efficiency and fuel economy. Decision-making by OEMs is triggered by these regulatory requirements coupled with the need to protect existing investments in power-train technology. Given that elective vehicles may still be prohibitively expensive for mainstream buyers and that between-charge ranges may still be highly limited, car makers are focusing on more modest electrified drives to meet the proposed 54.5 mpg (4.3 L per 100 km) fleet requirements for 2025. Could lead–acid batteries prove to be the most tangible solution as vehicle manufacturers search for low-cost technology to meet the increasingly tougher fuel-economy regulations? This study will first explore the market dynamics and technology landscape and then disclose the present Johnson Controls projected powertrain demand for new vehicles.
Vice President & General Manager Asia Pacific
Johnson Controls Power Solutions
Bruce Ronning holds a Bachelor of Science in Management from the University of Maryland. He has been with Johnson Controls for 16 years and currently serves as Vice President and General Manager of Asia Pacific, Power Solutions. In this role, he is responsible for leading the aftermarket business.
The curing process — the black hole in the manufacture of lead‒acid batteries
The curing process is one of the most important stages in the production of lead‒acid batteries. Unfortunately, however, most of manufacturers ignore the real advantages to be gained by taking a scientific and technological approach to this process. The presentation will give a rapid overview of the different technologies that are available for curing and cost-saving opportunities to be achieved by using the best curing chambers on the market. Particular attention will be paid to energy consumption and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions during plate manufacture.
Cesare Catelli received a Degree in Biology in 1999 at Milan Insubria University. He spent more than 15 years in curing process optimization as Technical Director at a Catelli family company, and specialized in curing chambers for battery industries. He is the inventor of 2 patents for a plates manufacturing process technology related to curing, and a finalist of the Altran Foundation award in 2006 for technological innovation and energy. Cesare is an expert in the curing process for any type of plates for lead acid batteries and in his spare time runs in marathons and mountain races.
TIMREX® CyPbrid™ A New Generation of Carbon Additives for Use in the Negative Electrode of Advanced Lead‒Acid Batteries
The addition of carbon materials to the negative electrode of a lead‒acid battery can significantly improve both its performance and cycle-life at high charging currents. Whereas there is a general agreement on the overall benefit of the carbon additive, the mechanism of its action has yet to be determined. Consequently, the key properties of carbon that cause the performance improvements have not been clearly identified. This presentation describes a new hybrid carbon additive, TIMREX® CyPbrid™, which is designed especially for advanced lead‒acid batteries in both industrial and automotive applications. Its performance in the negative electrode is compared with that given by crystalline graphite, expanded graphite, carbon black, and mixtures thereof. Carbon hydrophilicity, tap density and oil absorption are key properties for assisting the incorporation and dispersion of carbon in the negative paste. TIMREX® CyPbrid™ combines these properties and therefore is easily incorporated. The carbon affinity to lead and the electrical resistivity are identified as important determinants of the performance of carbon additives in the negative plate. Spontaneous formation of lead nucleation seeds is observed on selected carbon materials when exposed to a lead-rich environment. The seeds facilitate plating of the lead during battery charge when carbon is present in a negative plate. Electrical resistivity influences the final negative electrode resistivity. The selection of the right carbon additive is a compromise of these properties and the final electrode and battery requirements.
R&D Application Development Scientist
Imerys Graphite & Carbon Switzerland Ltd.
Dario Cericola holds a Doctor of Science qualification. He received his Bachelor of Science in Materials Chemistry in 2005 and his Master of Science in Photochemistry and Materials Chemistry at the University of Bologna, Italy. In 2011 he received a PhD from the Chemical Engineering department of the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich (Switzerland) in the field of Electrochemistry applied to lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Since August 2011 Dario has been Application Scientist in the Research & Development Laboratory of IMERYS Graphite and Carbon (former TIMCAL Graphite and Carbon) dealing with various battery systems. He is involved in several projects and leading the functional carbon for LAB project.
Heraeus Porocarb® – A Unique Functional Carbon Additive for Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices
Heraeus Porocarb® is a functional carbon additive platform for aqueous and non-aqueous electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems, such as lead–acid batteries, fuel cells, and lithium–sulfur or lithium-ion batteries. Porocarb carbons exhibit a unique and tunable porosity profile that ranges from small mesopores below 10 nm to macropores with cross-sections of several hundreds of nanometres, with all levels of porosity being hierarchically interconnected and fully accessible. This structure acts as transport and storage network for liquid electrolyte and enhances electrochemical kinetics of ion transport in various types of cell. At the same time, the mesopores offer plenty of nucleation sites for discharge products (PbSO4, LiSx) and consequently crystallite size remains small during the reaction. Furthermore, Porocarb offers excellent corrosion resistance and high electronic conductivity. The presentation demonstrates the benefits of Porocarb for lead–acid and other related electrochemical storage systems. Lead adsorption and its relation to porosity profiles and surface chemistries of different types of Porocarb are discussed. . Finally, the general trends and guidelines whereby Porocarb can lead to enhanced performance of electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices are discussed.
Head of Innovation
Heraeus New Businesses - Battery
Dr. Dominik Samuelis is Head of Innovation for Heraeus New Businesses ― Battery and is in charge of R&D for the Heraeus Porocarb(R) platform. He hols a Masters degree in Engineering from Darmstadt University and a PhD from RWTH Aachen University. He has authored more than 20 technical publications, 3 book chapters and 3 patent applications.
Development of a Compressed Natural Gas Fuelled, Start‒Stop Hybrid, Light-Duty, Pickup Truck using Advanced Lead‒Acid Batteries
With the recent increase in the supply of compressed natural gas (CNG) for use as a motor fuel, the application of advanced hybrid technologies to improve fuel efficiency (thereby reducing operating costs and emissions) and extend the range of CNG fuelled vehicles provides an opportunity to accelerate the adoption of CNG as a motor fuel. With this increase in supply, however, has come a concomitant reduction in the cost of CNG that has changed the economics of hybridization from sophisticated full hybrids (at substantial cost) to simple start‒stop or launch-assist hybrids. This presentation details the start‒stop hybridization of a RAM 1500 pickup truck using CNG fuel and an advanced lead‒acid battery. The twin objectives of the RAM hybridization are to extend the vehicle range and to reduce its operating cost. Results prior to hybridization and post hybridization are presented for track, dynamometer and on-road testing, along with results of battery testing in accordance with the US Advanced Battery Consortium 12-Volt Start‒Stop Battery Test Manual.
Electric Applications Incorporated
Mr. Karner spent fifteen years in the electric utility industry where he developed and implemented strategic direction for engineering, operating and maintenance organizations that ranged in size from ten to three thousand people in nuclear, fossil, environmental and rate-making arenas. His interests then moved to the advancement of electric vehicles and advanced vehicle fuelling infrastructure. For over 20 years, Mr. Karner served as President of Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation that developed electric and hydrogen fuelled vehicles and fuelling infrastructure. Mr. Karner currently serves as President of Electric Applications Incorporated, a Phoenix, Arizona firm that specializes in battery testing and applications, research and development, and energy consulting.
Best Practice for Future Lead–Acid Products
The global demand for lead–acid batteries is growing, with an increasingly varied range of technologically diverse energy-storage applications. In general, there is an ever-increasing requirement for better battery performance. Consequently, the focus is now on the production of lighter, lower cost (less lead), more durable (longer service- life) batteries that are manufactured from optimum-quality raw materials under consistent, reproducible and controlled conditions; with sophisticated, efficient, production equipment and reliable process technology. In order to ensure a sustainable future for lead–acid batteries, it is essential to optimise grid and plate production by minimising waste materials; improving productivity and quality; and increasing lead utilisation. There is a continual push to modify and/or change lead and lead-alloy specifications to invoke lower impurity levels for all elements, often without appreciating their benefits. Nevertheless, it is naive to believe that all elements are detrimental to performance and life of the battery. This presentation reviews the importance of (i) correctly specifying ‘soft’ lead for the production of ‘leady oxide’; (II) selecting the appropriate manufacturing process used to make these oxides; and (iii) utilising the corresponding characteristics and benefits of each of these different oxides in paste for lead–acid cells/batteries.
Vice President – Battery Technology
WIRTZ Manufacturing Company Inc.
Douglas (‘Doug’) Lambert holds a BSc (Hons) degree from the University of Portsmouth. He joined Oldham Batteries in February 1977 and now with over 38 years of experience in the lead–acid battery industry, which included 12 years as a specialist lead-acid product and process consultant, he is currently Vice President – Battery Technology for the WIRTZ Manufacturing Company Inc.
Lead Market Direction: Effects of Chinese Demand Change and New Battery Technology
The future direction of the lead market will be dictated substantially by developments in China as it approaches the point at which China will account for over half of all lead consumption. Although the Chinese industry will continue to be driven mainly by batteries, it is already beginning to centre on automotive demand rather than e-bikes as the latter sector reaches saturation. Industrial batteries are also set to overhaul e-bikes in terms of consumption within the next ten years. Years of legislative pressure on the automotive industry has led to the adoption of start–stop vehicle technology as an effective means to reduce fuel consumption and thereby harmful emissions. This technology is experiencing widespread acceptance especially in Europe and Japan, and to a lesser but increasing degree in North America, China, India, and elsewhere. There are, however, some unresolved questions with respect to the use of start–stop batteries, such as their durability under a more demanding duty cycle and increased sensitivity to lead quality that forces the use of high-grade primary lead or highly-refined secondary material. Additionally, the technology requires batteries with higher capacity which results in more contained lead per unit. Uncertainties remain whether this increased imperative for more and better lead per battery will be offset by an increased service life through more sophisticated battery monitoring and charging systems.
Principal Analyst Lead Markets
Wood Mackenzie Ltd
The author has spent his entire career in the metals industry after graduating from the University of Leeds with an honours degree in Metallurgy. His introduction into the lead industry occurred in the early 1990s as a Production Metallurgist for a large European producer and, like many in the industry, has found it impossible yet undesirable to leave this industry ever since.
After a handful of years he transitioned into the commercial world of lead within the same corporation, but with the advantage of being able to combine his specialist background with the wider business needs of a technical and commodity based product.
In 2005 he founded a business consultancy focusing on the metals industry and on lead in particular, with engagements including market analysis, raw materials acquisition, process development, product failure, capital investment, due diligence and as expert witness.
In 2015 he joined Wood Mackenzie as Principal Analyst Lead Markets, bringing this wealth of experience to a leading provider of commercial intelligence for base metals markets.
Manufacture of Absorptive Glass-Mat Types of Valve-Regulated Lead‒Acid Battery — An Update
Valve-regulated lead‒acid batteries based on absorptive glass-mat (AGM) technology are in constant and increased demand for use in start‒stop vehicles. Sovema is well placed to provide the technology that will achieve the highest quality required for such products, namely: ball mills for oxide production; grid production lines; systems for active-material preparation and for high-pressure pasting of the grids; curing systems that ensure the correct percentage of tribasic and tetrabasic sulfates in the plates; enveloping and AGM wrapping machines, cast-on-strap (COS) machines and assembly lines; charging systems with controlled temperature and current, based on cutting-edge insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) technology; a finishing line customized to supply the market with the best batteries. The grids are a key component of AGM batteries because they have to provide high mechanical robustness and optimum corrosion resistance. Sovema has met these requirements for positive grids through the development of a technology that involves punching a rolled strip. For negative grid production, Sovema has devised a continuous-casting system (rotary caster) that allows cost-efficient production of full-frame grids.
Mr Capuzzo joined Sovema in early 1997 and has fulfilled the following roles: 1997‒2001 support engineer in the Sales Dept.; 2001‒2002 Sales Area Manager for Northern Africa, Eastern Europe, CSI countries, and Middle East; 2010 onwards successively Sales & Marketing Director for Sovema Spa (Italy), Sovema Global Services (USA), Sovema Tianjin (China).
Battery Energy Storage for Use with Renewable Power Generation for Utility and Telecommunications Applications
Growth in the deployment of wind and solar renewable energy sources is promoting a need for energy storage to stabilise the output during rapid changes in wind speed or solar input. This applies more acutely in smaller networks, rural networks, and systems that are disconnected from the public network such as remote telecommunications sites. Many forms of energy storage can be employed. For large networks, pumped hydroelectric schemes are highly effective and compressed air has also been used. For smaller networks and isolated sites, battery energy storage is favoured. Lead‒acid and a number of other chemistries have been deployed in large demonstration batteries. There are also opportunities for battery energy-storage in smaller applications with photovoltaic systems, both for off-grid and for grid-connected systems where reducing feed-in tariffs render local storage an attractive proposition. The relative economics of different energy-storage systems will be discussed and it will be shown that lead‒acid batteries are well suited to this type of application. Various designs of lead‒acid battery for grid and telecommunications (particularly so-called ‘extreme telecommunications’) applications will be described together with ways by which the competitive position of lead‒acid batteries in this sector can be improved.
Geoffrey May gained his first and second degrees at from the University of Cambridge and he is a Fellow of the Institute of Materials and Mining and a Chartered Engineer. He has been a prominent member of the battery community for many years. Geoffrey was Group Director of Technology for Hawker Batteries (now EnerSys); then Chief Technology Officer for FIAMM. For the past ten years, he has provided consulting services to the industry as FOCUS Consulting.
TBLS+® and Optimized Expander Mixes for High-Performance Lead–Acid Batteries
Over the past 10 years, PENOX GmbH has successfully worked together with the battery industry to improve the performance of automotive batteries and to reduce and optimize the formation process for industrial batteries. In recent years, there have been significant changes in the specifications to meet the new requirements coming from applications such as start–stop and braking energy recuperation that effect charge-acceptance and also the state-of-charge of the battery. This has led to the introduction of test procedures, such as the 17.5% DoD test, by car manufacturers that are providing new challenges to the battery industry. In 2013 and 2014, PENOX conducted a test programme with some European battery producers to develop batteries that would meet the new requirements. Positive plates were produced using TBLS+, a PENOX tetra-basic lead sulfate seeding material, and tested in combination with PENOX expander mixes for the negative plates. Initial results proved that TBLS+ was beneficial for the positive plate in terms of lifetime and deep-discharge performance and is supporting the 17.5% DoD test. In combination with the expander mix types PE110 / PE210, it is possible to improve charge-acceptance at high currents. This is a clear step towards meeting the requirements of modern car designs and contributes to lower carbon dioxide emission levels. The presentation will present results from both a European battery producer and the test work undertaken by the battery additive team at PENOX that demonstrate improvements in performance when using TBLS+ and PENOX expanders.
Head of Battery Additive Team
Ian Klein has been Laboratory and Quality Manager for PENOX GmbH for more than 20 years. He started his professional career as a researcher more than 38 years ago in the pigment industry. Later he worked in Research & Development and as a Laboratory Manager for a German zinc and zinc oxide producer before entering into the lead oxide industry. At PENOX GmbH in Germany he developed seeding materials for lead acid batteries and is responsible for the technical support of their customers. Three years ago he was the project leader for the installation of a modern expander mix production plant and since 2013 has become head of the battery additive team at PENOX. Ian has a Master of Environmental Science degree from the University of Hagen in Germany.
Progress in Grid Energy Storage: Technologies and Applications
With the increasing penetration of variable renewable generation, storage is now becoming one of the hottest topics in the utility industry. Research on materials and devices has increased cost-effectiveness, cycle-life and safety. Flywheels, lithium-ion batteries, flow batteries and carbon-enhanced lead‒acid batteries are being deployed. Following small-scale demonstration projects, markets are now gradually taking shape. At the same time, changes in the regulatory framework result in more equitable valuation of storage benefits. The presentation will discuss multi-megawatt applications of a variety of energy-storage technologies. Major recent storage facilities constructed in Texas, California, Pennsylvania and New Mexico under the stimulus program of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) will be reviewed. As major players begin deploying increasingly more substantial storage projects, operators are recognizing their value for ancillary services. In particular, smoothing and ramping of wind and solar PV are being addressed. Emergency preparedness through storage micro-grids is another important development. There are now over 1200 storage projects listed in the Global Energy Storage Database. With the new California mandate for 1.3 GW of deployment, there is the expectation of an exciting upsurge in storage research and many new projects. Meanwhile, safety considerations are also receiving increasing attention. Storage will make renewables dispatchable and thereby will encourage their deeper penetration. It will also make the grid more resilient, improve asset utilization, and prevent outages.
Program Manager, Energy Storage Research
U.S. Dept. of Energy
Dr. Imre Gyuk, U.S. Department of Energy After taking a B.S. from Fordham University, Dr. Gyuk did graduate work at Brown University on Superconductivity. Having received a Ph.D. in Theoretical Particle Physics from Purdue University he became a Research Associate at Syracuse. As an Assistant Professor he taught Physics, Civil Engineering, and Environmental Architecture at the University of Wisconsin. Dr. Gyuk became an Associate Professor in the Department of Physics at Kuwait University where he became interested in issues of sustainability. Dr. Gyuk joined the Department of Energy to manage the Thermal and Physical Storage program. For the past decade he has directed the Electrical Energy Storage research program in the Office of Electricity which develops a wide portfolio of storage technologies for a broad spectrum of applications. As part of the program he also supervises the $185M ARRA stimulus funding for Grid Scale Energy Storage Demonstrations. He is internationally recognized as an expert on storage technology.
Enhanced Flooded Batteries (EFB) Designs and Ongoing Directions
To meet the requirements associated with Idle–start–stop (ISS) vehicles, lead–acid battery manufacturers have employed various designs that have both advantages and disadvantages. Automobile manufacturers continue to strive to reduce vehicle emissions, to improve fuel economy and to meet government requirements, while simultaneously controlling costs. In this presentation, a review will be given of the various design options, together with evaluation of the penetration rate in the market, general design elements, and existing challenges and how they may be realized. As present ISS technology is just the first step in the electrification of the vehicle, comments will be offered with respect to ways whereby lead–acid batteries can support functions such as regenerative braking and drive assistance. Finally, the paper will close with an exploration of how developments associated with ISS operation may be applied to other battery markets served by lead–acid batteries.
J Kevin Whear
Vice President Technology
J. Kevin Whear is Vice President Technology for Daramic LLC, which he joined 27 years ago after graduating from the University of Tulsa. He is guiding and directing customer technical support and new product development efforts world-wide. Kevin has numerous granted patents to his credit, and many published articles most notably on the subject of separator technology for lead–acid batteries.
Water loss in Modern Lead–Acid Batteries — Linking Electrocatalytic Activity of Carbon Additives to their Physical and Chemical Properties
Over the past years, several studies have shown that the addition of certain amounts and types of carbon can maintain the negative active-material of lead–acid batteries in a healthy condition, even under the demanding application of high-rate partial state-of-charge cycling. Unfortunately, however, the presence of extra carbon can also degrade battery performance. A particular problem is increased water consumption due to higher hydrogen evolution at the negative electrode. Carbon usually exhibits a lower hydrogen overpotential than lead and additionally enlarges the specific surface-area of the electrode. Thus, during charging, an appreciable gassing current is generated on the carbon surface such that water in the electrolyte solution is consumed and the concentration of sulfuric acid is increased. This situation impedes proper charging and shortens battery life. A state-of-the-art method has therefore been developed to investigate the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on pure carbon additives in sulfuric acid solution. By employing a rotating disc electrode set-up together with drop cast carbon electrodes, it is possible to reduce the influence of binders and bubbles in order to obtain distinct Tafel behaviour. An initial attempt has been made to link the physical and chemical properties of carbon additives with the gassing current. Therefore, the on-set potentials and Tafel slopes of different carbon additives have been determined and compared. It is found that the specific surface-area of the carbonaceous material is an important parameter that correlates with the electrocatalytic activity. Some evidence has also been obtained to suggest that surface oxides might have a major impact on the gas evolution.
Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Chemistry ISC - Center for Applied Electrochemistry
Jochen Settelein received his Master of Science in 2012 from the University of Wuerzburg with focus on surface and semiconductor physics. Since 2013, he has been studying for a PhD at the same University and also works as a research associate at the Center for Applied Electrochemistry at the Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC.
WIRTZ Grid and Plate Production Technology
Since the invention of the lead–acid cell, over 150 years ago, many methods have been used to manufacture the support matrix (or ‘grid’) for the positive and the negative active-materials. Techniques include: gravity casting grids, injection moulding spines for tubular plates, rolling thin metal films for spirally-wound cells, expanding metal lead-alloys and lead-plated copper strip, continuous rotary pressure die-casting (WIRTZ CON-CastTM) with subsequent rolling (WIRTZ CON-RollTM ), and punching (WIRTZ ‘Reformed’ US Pat. CON-PunchTM) grids from lead-alloy strip. The presentation discloses recent advances in WIRTZ plate-making process technology and with particular focus on a pasting line that will produce up to 1000 motorcycle plates per minute within +/- 0.5 g paste weight, together with a robotic palletizing station.
John O Wirtz
President & Chief Executive Officer
WIRTZ Manufacturing Company Inc.
John O Wirtz, a graduate from Michigan State University USA, has been President and CEO of Wirtz Manufacturing, in Port Huron, for the past 25 years. His in-depth knowledge of process equipment for the lead–acid battery industry is pivotal within the Wirtz Manufacturing Company and ensures that the results equal or exceed customer expectations.
Innovation in Separators for Deep-Cycle Applications of Lead–Acid Batteries
Many markets around the world are experiencing rapid changes in energy-storage technology as regulations tighten around the efficient use of energy resources. Whether it is European directives for carbon emissions, fuel-efficiency standards for vehicles in the USA, vehicle emission standards in various other countries, or even the new rules that are being implemented in California with respect to the efficiency of battery chargers, it is clear that batteries will be forced to handle higher loads for longer periods with less opportunity for charging. Batteries will need to be designed with these deep-cycling requirements in mind, even for automotive applications, such as idle-stop–start, which have not been traditionally considered as deep-cycle. The separator will also have to play a more prominent role in assisting the other components of the battery to withstand these increasingly stringent demands. New considerations and innovations in separator design and composition will be presented.
Vice President, Technology
John Timmons is the Vice President of Technology for Microporous, LLC. He holds a bachelor’s degree in chemistry from the Virginia Military Institute and a master’s degree in chemical engineering from the University of Virginia. For the past 19 years, John has worked in various roles in the engineering and research and development of lead–acid batteries and their separators.
Lead–acid Technology Leadership for High-rate Partial-charge Cycling Applications
In 2012, with assistance from an US Department of Energy (DOE) ARRA grant, Ecoult installed a 3-MW UltraBattery® frequency-regulation system in the PJM grid in Pennsylvania, USA, at the factory site of East Penn Manufacturing. The initiative successfully proved the field capability of the UltraBattery® in high-rate partial state-of-charge duty for MW-scale systems. Meanwhile, further evolution of the UltraBattery® technology was pursued. Consequently, frequency regulation has commenced at the same site and employs a new format of UltraBattery that operates at roughly double the power rating of the original design. The field performance of the original installation and, for the first time, that of the new UltraBattery® will be disclosed. In addition, a dual-purpose system (frequency regulation plus stand-by power) is being installed for a commercial customer that will earn revenue through grid regulation and so be one of the world’s first revenue-positive industrial stand-by battery systems. The MW-scale facility ― like all of Ecoult’s products ― will be modular, essentially plug-and-play, and fully monitored down to the individual battery level. The presentation will describe how the outcomes of the DOE ARRA project promise to foster major energy-storage initiatives.
Chief Executive Officer
As a technology CEO for more than 20 years, John Wood has had the good fortune to have worked with excellent individuals and led excellent teams that have created businesses and numerous successful products and solutions from the ground up that are used and trusted by many of the world’s largest enterprises and governments. He is now the CEO of Ecoult and is leading the company’s effort to commercialize UltraBattery® storage solutions.
The Next-generation UltraBattery for Micro-Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption from the transport sector is a major problem for governments world-wide. In Europe, for example, various governments demand automakers to decrease carbon dioxide emissions from current value of about 140 g for every 1 km driven to 95 g by 2020 and this is expected to decrease further to 75 g per km by 2025. Likewise, the Japanese government requires automakers to improve fuel economy from the present value of 15.0 to 20.3 km per L by 2015. With such requirements, part of the solution is the development of the third-generation micro-hybrid electric vehicles (micro-HEVs). These vehicles have new features that include integrated starter–generator (ISG) stop during acceleration, engine stop during coasting, and recuperation during coasting and deceleration, and will become the main stream in the near future to improve fuel economy. First-generation micro-HEVs adopted enhanced flooded batteries (EFB) or absorptive glass-mat AGM batteries. Second-generation micro-HEVs in Japan adopted EFB + Li-ion or EFB + capacitor for enhancing recuperation during deceleration. These two energy-storage systems provide very good performance, but are very expensive. Therefore, Japanese automakers require low-cost solutions for the third-generation micro-HEVs. The next-generation UltraBattery, a combined lead–acid and supercapacitor hybrid energy-storage device, has proved to have excellent high-rate, partial state-of-charge (HRPSoC) durability and charge acceptability. In this presentation, the performance of the next-generation UltraBattery will be discussed and it will be shown that the very expensive dual energy-storage system can be replaced by only one next-generation UltraBattery.
The Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd
Dr Jun Furukawa obtained a Bachelor of Science from the A-o-ya-ma-Ga-ku-in (Aoyama) University, Japan, in 1980, and received a Doctor of Engineering and Science from the Iwaki Meisei University, Japan in 2014. He joined The Furukawa Battery Company in 1980. Now he is a Senior Fellow and General Manager of the UltraBattery commercialization department. Dr Furukawa has commercialized the UltraBattery, an integrated supercapacitor/lead-acid hybrid energy-storage device for micro-HEV and renewable applications. He holds more than 100 patents. He has been awarded the Technical Development Award from The Electrochemical Society of Japan in 2009. He was a nominee for the Gaston Plante Medal in 2014. He is a Member of the Electrochemical Society (ECS) of USA and the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan (IEEJ).
Efficient Energy Generation and Storage System for Rural Electrification and Weak Grids
K.D. Merz, J. Cilia The presentation examines the feasibility of making installed grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems run independent of the grid if and when required. The concept is based on the use of a ‘smart’ battery, a battery-management unit, and a converter. In order to limit the size of the battery required, however, a micro-scale combined heat and power (CHP) unit (single-phase) supplies the heat demanded during the winter. The energy storage of the smart battery and the operation of the micro-CHP unit are controlled by a wireless management system. Three grid-connected houses with installed PV systems have been monitored over a three-year period. It is found that integration of the battery‒CHP facility accommodates the annual energy requirements of each house. Details are given of the design of the battery capacity and the sizing of the CHP unit.
Vice President Technology
KD Merz graduated in Chemical Engineering from Tech. College in Duesseldorf in 1980. He worked at the Research & Development department at Sonnenschein Batteries for seven years. From 1993 to 1999 he was Marketing and Product Manager for EV and HEV Applications. From 2000 to 2007 he was Director Marketing for Motive Power Products for Exide Technologies. In 2008 he decided to become self employed and work on battery technology and battery applications, sustainable energy generation and EV and HEV technology. He consults to several battery companies in Europe, Asia and USA on VRLA battery technology, and works on systems integration of batteries and accessories for complete energy solutions for customers in the material handling industry. He cooperates with several companies on the development of new products, components and solutions for the battery and energy industry.
Advanced Battery Grid Punching Technology
Battery manufacturers are being challenged by the ever-increasing demands on battery performance and the need to improve production efficiency in their facilities. The Battery Grid Punching System from Oak Press Solutions can help address the demands of the end-customer and the needs of the manufacturer. Punched battery grids have been proven to provide superior performance when compared with grids produced with other technologies. The punching system from Oak not only produces very consistent grids, which increases overall plant efficiencies, but it also delivers grids at a very high production rate. The presentation will describe the various punching systems available from OAK to match the production needs of battery manufacturers and the advanced technologies included with these systems. The Oak punching systems can be configured for production volumes from 300 000 to 5 million+ batteries per year. Both lug-in strip or lug-out panels can be produced for SLI applications, and multi-panel strips for E-Bike or motorcycle applications. The features and latest innovations of the Oak battery grid punching tooling, which includes the new E-Series Punching Systems, ‘Smart Die’ Technology and a Strip Correction System, will also be reported.
Vice President of Sales
Oak Press Solutions Inc.
Kent Lancaster holds a Bachelors Degree in Electrical Engineering from Tri-State University. He joined the OAK Companies in 1986 and has spent the past 29 years in the industrial marketplace. Kent is now is the Vice President of Sales at Oak Press Solutions Inc. and is responsible for the global marketing of OAK Battery Grid Punching Systems.
Lead–Acid Battery Industry in China
The presentation opens with an overview of the status of the lead–acid battery industry in China consequent to the introduction of environmental requirements and regulations. The focus then shifts to an analysis of the demand and supply of the batteries according to the diversity of their applications. There are three major categories, namely: (i) automotive — for road vehicles and motorcycles; (ii) reserve power — for telecommunications, uninterruptible power supplies, and portable equipment; (iii) motive power — for forklift trucks, golf carts, hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles The analysis will examine the leading suppliers and the major customers in each category, together with their respective market shares. Leoch is one of the leaders in all three categories. In closing, the presentation cautions that environmental regulations are necessitating constant upgrading of manufacturing operations and thereby are discouraging investment by some manufacturers. Therefore, companies are expected to leave the industry. Nevertheless, the market demand is growing so that there remain good opportunities for investment into the Chinese lead–acid battery industry.
Leoch International Technology Limited
Dong Li is the Chairman of Leoch International Technology Limited based in Shenzhen. He founded Leoch in 1999 and has built it into one of the world’s largest makers of lead-acid batteries, used for telecommunications, as back-up power sources and in electric vehicles. Leoch is traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Mr. Dong also founded and owns Marshell Electric Vehicle Ltd. and Marxon Electronics Ltd., which also focus on new energy technologies and high-performance batteries. He has established more than 50 companies globally, with more than 15,000 employees and close to $1 billion in annual revenue. His companies’ products are used in more than 100 countries. Mr. Dong earned an Executive MBA from the National University of Singapore and serves on a number of industry organizations, including as Vice Chairman of Guangdong High-Tech Industry Chamber, Executive Vice President of the Chinese American Federation and Honorary Chairman of the Chinese CEO Organization and Honorary Chairman of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce of Los Angeles.
Development of an Algorithm to Estimate Capacity Loss of Lead–Acid Batteries in Micro-Hybrid Applications
Lead–acid batteries used in micro-hybrid applications with stop–start and recuperative braking functionality are experiencing increased energy throughputs under the high-rate partial state-of-charge regime (HRPSoC) compared with conventional starter-batteries. To ensure more reliable operation, the batteries are installed together with an intelligent battery monitoring system, which performs state-of-charge (SoC), state-of-function (SoF) and state-of-health (SoH) estimation. The SoH is usually defined through capacity loss and resistance increase due to ageing processes. This value is used to adapt the SoC estimation and detect the need for battery exchange. Furthermore, resistance change over lifetime is auxiliary for estimating SoF, thus information about capacity loss results in a more accurate on-board status diagnostic. Increasing resistance correlates to capacity degradation, but quantification and qualification of this correlation is difficult. Cycle counting, as another method to determine SoH, requires extensive tests to cover all dependencies, which come with cyclic ageing. These methods are less feasible for micro-hybrids especially because the partial SoC condition leads to stronger sulfation, which not directly depends on energy throughput, but causes significant capacity loss and impairment of chargeability. The detection and quantification of sulfation would determine this substantial part of capacity loss in micro-hybrids. An algorithm developed for micro-hybrid applications is presented. It estimates capacity loss due to sulfation using open-circuit voltage (OCV) measurements and charged ampere-hours over prolonged charging periods. Additionally, changes in the OCV–SoC relationship and water-loss are considered, since these effects also influence the battery capacity. This development allows a better on-board diagnostic of battery state in modern micro-hybrid applications.
Research associate and PhD student
Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University
Monika Kwiecien graduated as a Dipl.-Ing. in electrical engineering from RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Afterwards she worked in the University as a research assistant at the Philips Chair for Medical Information Technology. In 2013, she joined the Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA) at RWTH Aachen University, as a member of the scientific staff and a Ph.D. student. Her research topic is the development of new algorithms for the diagnostic of lead–acid batteries in vehicle applications.
Energy-Storage Solution for the One Billion Who Are Unplugged
Over one billion people throughout the world do not have access to grid electricity. This is creating a global Solar Home System (SHS) market of USD15 billion dollars in off-grid areas. At present, there are 6 million SHS installations with the largest market (over 3.5 million) in Bangladesh. The key components of a SHS are a solar photovoltaic (PV) panel, a charge controller, and a deep-cycle battery. The tubular design of lead–acid battery has set the record for long-lasting and best performance, namely, a service life of over 8 years in remote rural homes. The presentation will share techno-commercial information to substantiate a cost–benefit analysis that outweighs all other battery technology and delivers energy at a cost less than that of kerosene. Other benefits include better health and environmental conditions together with the provision of lighting, mobile phone operations and television connectivity. Opportunities for the lead–acid battery industry in the expanding SHS market will be reviewed.
Rahimafrooz Renewable Energy Limited
Mr. Munawar Misbah Moin — a graduate of St John’s University, Minnesota, USA — is the Managing Director of Rahimafrooz Renewable Energy Limited where he leads the Solar PV and Energy Services Business. He has over 20 years of experience in both renewable solar energy and lead–acid automotive and industrial battery manufacture and marketing.
Improved Measurement Techniques to Define Absorbed Glass-Mat Properties in Valve-Regulated Lead–Acid Batteries
The absorbent glass-mat (AGM) separator is a key determinant of the performance of the valve-regulated lead–acid battery (VRLA) through its influence on electrolyte supply, pore structure, resilience under compressive force, chemical purity, and consistency. Hollingsworth and Vose are continuously developing new and improved methods of ex-situ testing to evaluate critical AGM properties to aid the battery designer in the selection of the proper separator for applications to insure good performance and long life. Present AGM testing protocol has evolved from the methodology employed by the paper industry and does not completely encompass the complex demands placed on the AGM separator in modern battery designs. Rapid battery stacking rates, high battery separator assembly pressures, aggressive acid filling, rapid battery formation, and the demanding duty of the batteries in application are not adequately addressed in accepted standard AGM testing protocol. New methodology is presented to characterize AGM compression and relaxation, stratification resistance, acid filling and ionic conductivity through the separator structure.
Hollingsworth and Vose
Dr Nela Ren has 12 years of industrial R&D experience in the development of specialty materials. Dr Ren’s most recent endeavours in the Hollingsworth and Vose Company are focused on glass micro-fibre filtration media and AGM separator development.
Hollingsworth and Vose
Effect of Various Metal Ions in the Electrolyte on Strap Corrosion and Charge-acceptance Capability of lead–acid battery from a Fundamental Viewpoint
The lead–acid battery is one of the most popular secondary batteries because of its wide usable temperature range, reasonable cost, relatively high discharge capacity, etc. To prevent short-circuits across the separators due to the formation of metallic lead dendrites, alkaline sulfate or alkaline earth sulfate is sometimes added to the electrolyte. There have been reports, however, that some alkaline sulfates, such as sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), decrease the charge-acceptance capability. This presentation discusses investigations of the electrochemical behaviour of a lead electrode, which corresponds to the negative electrode of a lead–acid battery, in sulfuric acid solution with various alkaline sulfates namely, Na2SO4, K2SO4, Li2SO4, Rb2SO4, or Cs2SO4,. The effect of sodium ions in the electrolyte solution on strap corrosion and charge-acceptance of the lead–acid battery from a fundamental viewpoint by using various analytical techniques that include EC-AFM (electrochemical atomic force microscopy) and FIB-SEM-EDX (focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Proposals are given on how to minimize strap corrosion and maintain charge-acceptance.
National Institute of Technology, Suzuka College
Dr. Nobumitsu Hirai is an associate professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the National Institute of Technology, Suzuka College, Japan. He received a Bachelor of Engineering from Kyoto University in 1992, a Master of Engineering from Kyoto University in 1994, and a PhD from Osaka University in 2000. He is the author 5 books, 49 refereed papers, and many conference proceedings papers. He is the recipient of an Encouragement Prize from The Japan Institute of Metal and Materials in 2001, and an Encouragement Prize from the Molten Salts Committee of The Electrochemical Society of Japan in 2005.
Carbon Additive Solutions for Start–Stop Batteries
In 2014, over 10 million start–stop vehicles were powered by advanced lead– acid batteries and this number is expected to grow to 34 million in 2017. Both automotive and advanced stationary applications place a strong demand for improved battery performance and thereby create a significant opportunity for innovation and step-change developments. Carbon additives are becoming broadly adopted in the formulation of such batteries for start–stop cars, remote telecommunication and energy-storage applications. The additives have a pronounced effect on reducing negative-plate sulfation and provide significant improvement in cycleability and dynamic charge acceptance for both valve-regulated and flooded lead–acid batteries. Cabot has developed several PBX grades of carbon additives for negative-plate formulations. The controlled surface-area, morphology and surface chemistry of the PBX grades can deliver significant improvements in charge-acceptance and cycle-life under various testing protocols and battery configurations. A PBX135 carbon additive has been introduced along with a novel lignosulfonate expander by Borregaard Lignotech. This formulation substantially improves ‘enhanced flooded batteries‘ (EFBs) for start–stop cycling protocols by providing excellent dynamic charge-acceptance and cold-cranking performance, while managing water loss on overcharge. The presentation will describe a study of PBX135 for optimizing EFBs at the cell level, together with fundamental analysis of lead–carbon electrode morphology and a description of the key parameters that affect performance under continuous 17.5% DoD cycling and dynamic charge-acceptance protocols. In addition, from monitoring changes in lead–carbon morphology during cycling and water loss on overcharge tests are developed to provide a new level of understanding of the role of carbon and expander in achieving an optimum electrode structure.
Global Applications Development Manager
Paolina Atanassova has a PhD in Chemistry from Sofia University, Bulgaria. Between 2003 and 2013, she was R&D Project Manager at Cabot Superior Micro Powders (CSMP), a division of Cabot Corporation. Her work was focused on the development of new materials for a variety of energy-storage devices such as fuel cells and batteries. Since 2010, Paolina led the development of novel carbon additives for advanced lead–acid batteries. She has published over 50 technical papers and presentations, and over 70 granted US and foreign patents. In April 2014, Paolina became the Global Application Development Manager for battery operations in Cabot’s Performance Materials Business.
Molecular Rebar® — A Revolutionary Additive to Increase Charge-Acceptance and Cycle-Life of Lead‒Acid Batteries
In order to meet the demands of present-day applications of lead‒acid batteries, the technology must provide higher levels of charge-acceptance to boost system efficiency and delay common failure mechanisms. In the past, the addition of various forms of carbon to the paste mix has been examined to address these challenges. Most, if not all, of these attempts have resulted, however, in changes in paste quality or production line equipment when the carbon is incorporated. Molecular Rebar® is a novel form of carbon nanotubes which are discrete, predominantly free from impurities, and provided in a safe, easily-deployable mixture. The product is incorporated into either positive- or negative-active materials during the paste-mixing stage but, importantly, requires no changes to the paste recipe or production line. Density, penetration and other quality control factors are unaffected by the addition of Molecular Rebar®. Performance gains achieved from a 0.16 wt.% loading of Molecular Rebar® (with respect to lead oxide) include 100‒200% increases in charge-acceptance, >33%, >60% and >200% increases in 17.5% DoD, HRPSoC and SBA cycle-life tests (respectively), and augmentations to cold charge-acceptance. The most recent performance data, product development, and theories regarding the mechanism of Molecular Rebar® in lead‒acid batteries will be reported.
Director of Technology, Lead Acid Batteries
Black Diamond Structures
Dr Paul Everill earned his Ph.D. at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts, studying the surface chemistry of biological macromolecules with the goal of developing smarter, more targeted medicines. After three years of post-doctoral experience studying diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease therapeutics, Dr Everill took his expertise in organic chemistry, surface chemistry, and molecule-molecule interactions and applied it to the growing field of nanotechnology. At Molecular Rebar Design, LLC, he was instrumental in formulating the functionalized carbon nanotubes known as Molecular Rebar® into a lead acid battery-compatible additive. He currently directs all product development and research-based activities for Molecular Rebar® Design’s lead acid battery initiatives.
Dr Everill published Molecular Rebar® Design’s research, together with Steven Swogger, Dr. Nanjan Sugumaran, and D. P. Dubey, in the Journal of Power Sources in 2014 and 2015. The first paper detailed the use of Molecular Rebar® (aka Discrete Carbon Nanotubes) in the negative electrode only (JoPS Vol. 261, September 1st, 2014, p55) and the second paper added to that work by discussing the addition to both electrodes (JoPS Vol. 279, April 1st, 2015, p281). Both articles are available free of charge.
Pathways to Advancing Lead-based Energy Storage
The energy storage market is expanding rapidly world-wide due to its potential to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions and deliver unique utility to society in combination with new and altered devices, vehicles and systems. In new and deeper applications across the globe, batteries are saving fuel and energy, or even providing energy in combination with renewable power generation where electricity did not exist before. In no small way, energy-storage devices or batteries are changing the world. Nevertheless, all the press and most of the government incentives are favouring lithium batteries. Lithium batteries will claim a deserved and notable part of this growing market, the portion of which is dependent on the management of the safety, cost and effective end-of-life management of their systems. Yet, nowhere can those who are seeking a more sustainable future find a technology that is as capable of efficient handling as lead-based batteries, and where also real further advancements are on the horizon. A review will be given of the pathways by which lead-based batteries will progress closer to their potential share of the growing energy-storage market.
President & Managing Director
Eco-Bat Technologies Ltd.
Ray is the President of EcoBat Technologies - the largest lead producer and recycler in the world. EcoBat produces about 800,000 metric tons of lead per year, and is also a leading developer of advanced alloys and high purity and performance soft lead from recycled materials.
Prior to joining EcoBat two year ago, Ray developed and led multiple battery companies worldwide in his career over the past 30+ years.
Ray’ s career was split about 50/50 in the automotive industrial battery fields. He was based in Europe for 17 years while leading the Hawker, then EnerSys’ Europe, the Middle East and Africa on business through 2012. Before moving to Europe, Ray worked in the US with Johnson Controls and Exide Technologies.
Ray now lives in the US in Dallas Tx with his wife Margie.
Ray graduated from the University of Illinois and the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania.
Chemical and Physical Changes in Lead–Acid Battery Separators Resulting from Oxidation
Separators for lead–acid batteries have traditionally been manufactured from the extrusion and subsequent extraction of a calendered sheet formed from a mixture of process oil, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and precipitated silica. A small amount of anti-oxidant is commonly used to prevent chain scission during the extrusion process, and some of it will remain in the final separator. The SiO2/PE ratio, amount of residual oil, oil composition, and speciality additives can all play a role in the oxidation resistance of the separator. This study examines the change in chemical composition and properties of battery separators when exposed to an oxidizing environment in standard laboratory tests and throughout the life of a lead–acid battery.
Vice President - Research & Development
ENTEK International LLC
Dr Pekala is Vice-President of Research & Development for ENTEK International LLC. He has a Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering from Duke University (1981) and a Doctor of Science in Polymeric Materials from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1984). Dr Pekala began his career at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where he worked for 11 years in the Materials Science Department on aerogels and other low density, microcellular materials. In 1996, Dr Pekala joined PPG Industries as a scientist working in the Silica Products business unit. At PPG, he managed the Microporous Materials Group and was responsible for precipitated silica used in battery separators and synthetic printing media. In 1999, Dr Pekala joined ENTEK where he helped to commercialize new products such as lithium-ion battery separators, waterproof breathable membranes, and golf car separators. Dr Pekala has over 100 technical publications, 2 R&D 100 awards, and 33 patents.
Evaluation of Current State of Advanced Lead-Carbon Battery Performance for 12-V Start‒Stop Applications
Over the past several years, the automotive industry has developed various approaches to improve fuel economy through electrification of vehicle drive-trains. Almost all recent market forecasts indicate a high sales potential for vehicles with a start‒stop system, as a simple and inexpensive solution that can achieve reductions in carbon dioxide emissions and increases in fuel economy, while the electric system and the size of the vehicle remain for the most part unchanged. To promote advanced lead‒acid technology with the North American automakers, the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) has assisted in organizing a project with the US Department of Energy (U.S. DoE), through its Idaho National Laboratory (INL), to baseline the progress made in lead‒acid batteries over the past decade. The project utilizes a testing process that is aimed at analyzing ‘gaps’ between current lead‒acid battery performance and the end-of-life characteristics targeted by the U.S. DoE and the North American vehicle manufacturers through the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). At the end of 2013, the USABC issued its Battery Test Manual for 12-Volt Start‒Stop Vehicles. Experience with conducting the following tests from the Test Manual will be presented: Capacity Test; Constant Power Discharge and Charge Test; Low Current Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) Test ; Self-Discharge Test; Cold Cranking Test; Cycle Life Test. Whereas these procedures are based on lithium batteries, issues emanating from their application specifically to lead‒acid batteries will be the focus of presentation.
Sally (Xiaolei) Sun
Director, Technology Development
Electric Applications Incorporated
Dr. Sun gained her PhD degree in Chemical Engineering from North Carolina State University. Her subsequent career has spanned research into a broad range of Renewable Energy and Clean Fuels —from hydrogasification and biofuels to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and coal-to-liquid processes. Currently, she directs battery testing conducted by Electric Applications Incorporated, ands also develops strategies and tactics for the development of business for the company.
Full-scale Performance of Lead–Acid cells with Lead-impregnated, Carbon Felt, Negatives
ArcActive has developed a novel negative electrode that demonstrates high and sustained dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) performance that exceeds the traditional limitations of this parameter that have beset car manufacturers. The presentation focuses on full-scale data that have been obtained from the Ford EU DCA test standard, CCA performance, and water consumption on the new EU specification. An update on manufacturability is also provided together with a recently proposed mechanism for the high level of DCA performance.
Testing & Development Manager
Shane Christie is the Testing and Development Manager at ArcActive and is responsible for managing the company’s R&D programme. Shane graduated from the University of Canterbury and has been with ArcActive since the company made its first electrode.
Pre-mixed ‘compound’ additives for negative plate of lead‒acid battery in low-temperature applications
The capacity, starting ability and charge-acceptance of lead‒acid batteries at low temperatures are strongly influenced by additives (expanders) to the negative plate. Whereas certain organic materials (such as lignin) can significantly increase the capacity at low temperature and improve cold-start performance, the charge-acceptance is often reduced. Accordingly, the research and development of additives that will both increase the discharge ability and improve the charge-acceptance at low temperature are of great practical significance. The ‘compound’ additives used in the present study consist of an organic material, barium sulfate and special type of carbon. Tests have been conducted on an experimental battery and a 6-QW-60 flooded battery with the new pre-mixed compound additives under the standard GB/T5008-2013 procedure. The results show great improvement in both the starting ability and the charge-acceptance at low temperature.
Shandong Jinkeli Power Sources Technology Co., Ltd.
Shounan Hua graduated from Shandong University (China) in 1961 and with a postgraduate degree from Shandong University in 1964. Since then, he has been engaged in teaching and research activities at the University in the fields of electrochemistry and power sources. Currently, he is an emeritus professor working on lead‒acid batteries and an consultant for the Shandong Jinkeli Power Sources Technology Company.
In-line Laser Gauging for Thickness Control of Pasted Plates in Lead–Acid Batteries
The thickness of applied lead paste is critical in the performance and manufacture of lead–acid batteries. Too little lead paste decreases the battery capacity, whereas too much lead paste is wasted cost in the manufacture of batteries. Paste thickness is increasingly becoming a key factor for absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries. In the production of AGM batteries the plates are pressed into a cell under compression and therefore, compared with flooded batteries, plate thickness plays a more critical role in battery performance and cell balancing. This presentation discusses the methods, challenges and implications of more stringent inspection and control of lead paste thickness. Topics covered include contrasting plate weight control vs. plate thickness control; a description of the technology, and an example case study.
Chief Executive Officer
Co-efficient Precision Engineering Inc.
Stephen Mate is the CEO of Co-efficient Precision Engineering. Co-efficient is a determined designer, manufacturer, marketer and supporter of in-line thickness gauges for process control. Co-efficient is on a mission to help manufacturers build better products by making laser gauging systems simple and productive and to help ensure successful integration into manufacturing processes. Co-efficient has been installing laser gauges since 2006, and has active installations running in nine countries and counting. The gauges have been installed for a wide range of materials and various items of production machinery, with an emphasis on the lead–acid battery industry.
The Role of Carbon in Lead–Acid Batteries for Partial State-of-Charge Operation
Addition of electrochemically-active carbon to the negative active-material (NAM) has resulted in carbon-enhanced lead–acid batteries (CLABs). These batteries are performing well under partial state-of-charge (PSOC) conditions, whereas traditional batteries fail prematurely due to sulfation of the negative plate. At present, CLABs are the only mass-produced and viable technology available for start–stop and basic micro-hybrid vehicles and they are also expected to play a major role in grid energy-storage applications. The success of CLABs lies in the carbon which promotes both Faradaic and capacitive processes during high-rate PSoC operation. Understanding the differences between these processes is limited. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) has revealed the behaviour of different carbons with in terms of electrocatalytic activity towards Pb2+ reduction and capacitive contributions. Recently, it has been found possible to separate the Faradaic and the capacitive and contributions to the total charge for the lead–carbon electrode. The same study also showed that the presence of carbon at the lead interface substantially enhances the electrochemical activity and increases the Faradaic charge, whereas carbons with high surface-area augment the capacitive charge. The CV technique has been further employed to study combinations of carbons as physical mixtures and bilayers. Earlier efforts were confined to the study of carbons on planar lead electrodes. In the present work, investigations are extended to the carbons that are blended with PbSO4 powder. The resultant system, Pb–PbSO4 + C–H2SO4, has a close resemblance to the lead electrode in a CLAB.
East Penn Manufacturing Co.
Dr. Subhas Chalasani is an esteemed member of the Research and Development team at East Penn, the world's largest battery manufacturing company. As the company continues to explore new advancement in lead-acid batteries, like the UltraBattery®, and its integration with other battery technologies, Dr. Chalasani brings 30 years of R&D experience in both lead-acid and lithium-ion technology to the program. Dr. Chalasani has successfully led other prominent battery development programs at companies including Exide Industries Ltd., Boeing, General Motors, and AT&T Bell Labs. A Ph.D. in Electrochemistry along many patents and publications in battery and battery management designs support his well-respected career and highly valued work.
Innovative Lid for Maintenance-free Lead–Acid Batteries
The automotive battery market is requesting more and more maintenance-free batteries without visible vent plugs. Accumalux has a long experience in the production of the K2 double-lids, which are approved by major European car manufacturers such as BMW and the VW Group and sold world-wide. Using this acquired expertise, Accumalux has developed a series of DIN automotive battery lids which, after formation, are fitted by just pressing on the battery a closing ramp. The ramp consists of two parts that are welded together during production at Accumalux so that they build an internal labyrinth through which the gases and acid mist coming from the battery travel before leaving the battery after passing an integrated flame arrestor. The labyrinth is similar, although a little smaller, than the version that endows the high technical characteristics of the K2 double-lid. Tests conducted on batteries produced with the new lid design have revealed no leakage of acid, even in extremely tilted or rolled-over positions.
Group Sales Director
Thomas Kaspar holds an Electronic Engineering Degree from the Politecnico di Milano, Italy. After three years in robotics and seven years working in sales of non-ferrous metals from recycling plants (mainly scrap battery recycling plants) at Engitec Impianti, Thomas moved to working with suppliers to the battery industry. He then had three years as Sales Manager at Daramic (separators production), 10 years as Sales Director at Plastam (plastic containers, lids and accessories for industrial batteries) and since January 2010 has been the Group Sales Director at Accumalux (plastic containers, lids and accessories production for automotive and industrial batteries).
New Grade of Organic Additive for Lead–Acid Batteries to Provide Significant Improvement in both Cold-Cranking Performance and Life at High Temperature
Lignosulfonates are potent additives that substantially improve the capacity, cold-cranking performance and the life of negative plates in lead–acid batteries. Incredibly, only 4 to 8 grams are required to produce a fourfold enhancement in the life of batteries that weigh 13 to 19 kg or more. Battery engineers are tasked to obtain optimum capacity, power and life from active materials at the lowest cost. Towards this goal, Borregaard LignoTech is pleased to introduce Vanisperse AT. Two investigations with commercial SLI batteries have been undertaken to validate Vanisperse AT, which is a new grade of organic additive that delivers significant improvements in both cold-cranking performance and cycle-life at high temperatures. The innovation enhances utilization of the negative active-material (NAM) under cold high-rate discharge. Correspondingly, the improved efficiency enables batteries to achieve greater cold-cranking performance and/or appreciable reduction in negative electrode mass with significant savings in lead and lighter batteries.
Senior Research Associate
Tim McNally joined Borregaard LignoTech in 1996 and is the Global Technical Application Manager for batteries. His work has focused on developing innovative organic additives to improve cold-cranking, charge-acceptance and high-temperature life of lead–acid batteries. He has presented papers at seven European Lead Battery Conferences. Tim has a Master's Degree in Chemistry from Wayne State University, USA, and is a contributing author to the Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology.
Future Requirements for Lead-Based Materials in the Battery Industry
Though still the dominant rechargeable battery chemistry, lead–acid is experiencing a greater degree of market pressure from other systems, e.g., lithium ion, as well as greater environmental scrutiny to maintain its social licence to operate. Specifically, technical demands for lower gassing, enhanced lifetime, improved dynamic charge-acceptance and higher material utilization are placing more stringent requirements on the chemical composition of pure lead and its alloys. Meanwhile, legislation for lower emission levels and the appearance of other battery technologies in the recycling stream is driving new technology into the smelters that close the lifecycle. As indicated in the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) research programme, the latest requirements for lead and lead alloys are directed towards higher purity levels. Changes in the environmental management and handling of cells to assure the sustainability of lead recycling are also necessary.
Analysis of the Behaviour of Sulfate Ions in Flooded lead–acid batteries for Idling Stop-–Start Vehicles
During operation in idling stop-start vehicles, flooded lead–acid batteries are unlikely to remain fully-charged and thus stratification of the electrolyte solution may readily occur. In such a situation, the cell reaction is concentrated at the top of the plates and degradation of the active material is acceralated. Hitachi Chemical has succeeded in suppressing acid stratification through the introduction of a new structure for the separator that combines conventional technology with a special separator. In order to elucidate the mechanism by which acid stratification is hindered, an investigation has been made of the sedimentation behaviour of sulfate ions in the direction of gravity and their diffusion behaviour in the horizontal direction.
Hitachi Chemical Co.,Ltd. Tsukuba Research Laboratory
Toshio Shibahara is a senior researcher in the Tsukuba Research Laboratory of Hitachi Chemical. He has been as engaged in the research and development of lead–acid batteries for 23 years. Currently, Toshio is studying of the performance of lead–acid batteries for Idling Stop-Start Vehicles.
Asian Market for Advanced Lead–Acid Battery Technology in Micro- and Mild-hybrid Electric Vehicles
Given global concern over environmental issues and the implementation of regulations for carbon dioxide emissions, new battery technologies are required for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications, especially for micro- and mild-hybrids. An evolution in the technology of lead–acid batteries commenced in 2000 and has now entered an accelerated stage. The use of carbon and the fast punching of lead to give thin grids have yielded high specific energy density and good cycle-life, as well as acceptable dynamic charge-acceptance and HRPSoC performance that meets the requirements of stop–start vehicles, micro-HEVs and mild-HEVs. The Asian automotive market of micro-HEVs is examined together with a forecast of the trends over next 10 years. New manufacturing processes for advanced lead–acid batteries are reviewed. The latest versions of international standards (IEC, EN, SBA-Japan, SAE, GB-China) for batteries employed in micro-HEV applications are also discussed together with the related regulations.
Leoch International Technology Limited
Mr Vijay Padhye holds a Degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Poona, as well as a Degree in Mechanical Engineering from Shiwaji University. He also has a Post Graduate Diploma in Foreign Trade from the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi, and a Diploma in International Marketing from BAW, Hannovar, Germany. Mr Padhye has over 45 years hands on experience in all functional aspects of Lead-Acid Batteries covering manufacturing, planning, Q.A, marketing and sourcing. He has an in-depth knowledge of the battery market in India.
Effect of Organic Expander Colloids Formed in the Electrolyte on Negative Electrodes in Lead–Acid Battery
The low-temperature performance of automotive lead–acid batteries is liable to decrease after service in a high-temperature environment such as the engine compartment. To improve the high-temperature durability of lead-acid batteries, a new organic expander is selected as an additive for negative electrodes. The presentation will describe the mechanism by which the new expander exhibits superior durability compared with conventional technology. The results indicate that the pore size of the negative active-material is due to the colloidal size of the organic expander in sulfuric acid solution. The small colloidal particles of the new material contribute to the formation and maintenance of narrow pores in the negative active-material, and this fine-grained structure results in the high discharge capacity at low temperature.
GS Yuasa International Ltd.
Yasuyuki Hamano received a master’s degree of agriculture from Kyoto University in March 2012. He then joined the Technical Development Division of GS Yuasa International Ltd. He has been researching high-performance electrodes for lead–acid batteries.
Leader, Technical Development Division
GS Yuasa International Ltd.
Group Manager, Technical Development Division
GS Yuasa International Ltd.
General Manager, Technical Development Division
GS Yuasa International Ltd.
Lead Risk Management in the Lead‒Acid Battery Manufacturing and Recycling Industries in China
The lead‒acid battery (LAB) sector has been identified by the Chinese Government in the 12th Five-Year Plan as one of the five most-polluting industries in China. From 2009, therefore, the Chinese government started to re-restructure the LAB sector after several instances of the population being subjected to major lead pollution exposures. New regulations and New Environmental Laws have been announced and are now being introduced throughout the industry. As a result of this legislation, more than one-thousand enterprises in the LAB and ULAB sectors have been shut down. This presentation will explain the significant changes to environmental legislation contained in the Access Conditions and New Environmental Laws, and will discuss the challenges encountered by the LAB sector in the implementation of the new regulations.
Director, Industrial Development Research Center, and Professor, School of Public Affairs
Dr Yeo Lin is a Professor at the School of Public Affairs and the Director of Industrial Development Research Center at the Zhejiang University in China. He has 30 years of experience in conducting economic analysis, policy studies and industry research in Asia, particularly Greater China. Professor Lin has also enjoyed a distinguished teaching and research career at universities in China, Taiwan and the US. In recent years, Professor Lin has led a number of major projects related to environmental protection in China.
SURFACE MODIFICATIONS OF CARBON MATERIALS FOR THE FABRICATION OF LEAD-CARBON OHMIC CONTACTS
Lead-Carbon (PbC) batteries have, ranging from hybrid vehicles to large-scale power plants. It is made by electrically connecting a porous carbon component to the negative plate of the lead-acid battery. The porous carbon component, known as the supercapacitor, acts as a charge buffer to suppress the negative plate sulfation, thus prolongs the battery lifetime. However, due to the chemical inertness of carbon, forming an ohmic contact between lead and carbon is a challenging task. This presentation will describe two surface modification methods, one by oxidation treatment and the other by co-deposition of lead with tungsten, to enhance the bonding between lead and carbon while reducing the contact resistance. We will demonstrate that the storage efficiency is above 90% for a PbC battery incorporating surface modified carbon monolith electrodes. The lifetime of this PbC battery is at least five times longer than the conventional counter part.
Division of Nuclear Fuels and Materials, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research
Dr. Yi-Ren Tzeng graduated in Chemical Physics Program from the University of Maryland in 2004. He joined the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan, in 2007. His research interest has been in the theoretical and experimental studies of the porous carbon materials.
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, National Formosa University
Anthony S.T. Chiang
Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering, National Central University
Senior Research Scientist and Director
Division of Nuclear Fuels and Materials, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research
Research and practice of lead–acid battery automatic production
The implementation of environmentally-benign systems is a major challenge facing lead–acid battery manufacturers in China. Consequently, a large number of enterprises are merging and undergoing reorganization. It is essential for the equipment supplier to assist the battery manufacturer in minimizing pollution during the production process, increasing automation and efficiency, reducing contact between people and pollutants; introducing new technologies, optimizing the production process, shortening the circulation periods of pollutants, and decreasing energy consumption. The paper will provide details of the present and proposed activities that are being undertaken. The action will be extended to the other developing countries such as South East Asia, South America, and Africa.
Chen Ying Ming graduated from Henan Science and Technology University. He also holds a master’s degree in business administration from Nanjing University. In 1999, he established CEMT to innovate and sell battery-making equipment. He is the Executive Vice President of the Nanjing Yiwu Chamber of Commerce, a committee member of the China Electrical Technology Association, a member of the China Lead–Acid Battery Electrical Equipment Industry Association, a member of the Editorial Board of the Battery Association Communication Magazine, and Vice President of the China Electrical Equipment Industry Association.
Advanced Lead–Acid Battery for various types of hybrid electric vehicle
In the past few years, advanced lead–acid batteries have gained significant application in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) because of their excellent performances, especially in energy recovery and HRPSoC life. Nevertheless, further development of the batteries is necessary to solve many outstanding problems in HEV service. The paper describes basic technical research and exploration of lead–acid battery operation, including structure selection, design optimization, formulation development and optimized performance (lower internal resistance, faster charge-acceptance and more stable discharge voltage in life cycle tests of HEVs), with funding support from the Camel Group, China.
Manager of the Fundamantal Research Department
Camel Group Co.,LTD.
Zubo Zhang graduated in Material Science and Technology from Chongqing University, and then proceeded to a Master’s Degree in Chemical Engineering at the Harbin Institute of Technology. He joined Camel in 2007 as an engineer and from 2009 to 2012 was the director for spiral wound battery development. His project team designed the first battery system for micro -hybrid vehicles in China. At present, he manages the basic research department and is a member of the IEC/TC21/WG2-Stop-Start Battery Committee.